GDPR and International Data Transfers: Adequacy, Standard Contractual Clauses, and Privacy Shield

In today’s digitally interconnected world, where data flows seamlessly across borders, the protection of personal information during international data transfers has become an increasingly critical concern. The implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) by the European Union (EU) in 2018 marked a significant milestone in data privacy regulations. The GDPR aims to safeguard individuals’ data privacy rights and impose stringent obligations on organisations handling personal data. However, as data crosses international boundaries, it is crucial to establish robust legal mechanisms that ensure consistent data protection standards throughout the transfer process.

International data transfers are a fundamental aspect of the globalised digital economy, enabling cross-border business operations, collaborations, and the provision of services. However, these transfers also raise concerns about potential privacy risks and the compatibility of data protection standards between different jurisdictions. To address these concerns, the GDPR incorporates various mechanisms to regulate international data transfers effectively. This article, under the guidance of a GDPR consultant, will explore three key aspects: adequacy decisions, standard contractual clauses (SCCs), and the now-defunct Privacy Shield framework. These mechanisms play a crucial role in providing a legal framework that ensures data protection, establishes trust among data subjects and organisations, and upholds individuals’ privacy rights.

Adequacy Decision

Definition of adequacy in the context of data protection

Adequacy, in the context of data protection, refers to the assessment of whether a third country (a country outside the European Economic Area) provides a level of data protection that is essentially equivalent to the protection guaranteed within the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA). An adequacy decision confirms that the data protection laws and practices of a particular country or territory ensure an adequate level of protection for the personal data of individuals transferred from the EU/EEA.

European Commission’s role in determining adequacy

The European Commission plays a crucial role in determining adequacy by evaluating the data protection laws and practices of third countries. The Commission has the authority to make a formal adequacy decision, which is a legally binding determination stating that a specific country or territory outside the EU/EEA offers adequate protection for personal data. The decision is based on a thorough assessment of the country’s legal framework, institutions, enforcement mechanisms, and data protection practices.

Criteria for assessing adequacy of a third country’s data protection laws

When evaluating the adequacy of a third country’s data protection laws, the European Commission considers several key criteria, including:

  1. Data Protection Rules and Legislation: The country should have comprehensive data protection laws in place that align with the principles and requirements outlined in the GDPR. This includes factors such as the legal basis for data processing, individuals’ rights, data security measures, and mechanisms for onward transfers of data.
  2. Access and Surveillance: The Commission assesses whether the country’s laws and practices regarding access to personal data by public authorities, including national security agencies, comply with EU data protection standards. Any potential interference with individuals’ rights to privacy and data protection is carefully examined.
  3. Effective Enforcement and Redress Mechanisms: The country should have robust and independent supervisory authorities responsible for enforcing data protection laws. Additionally, effective legal remedies and redress mechanisms should be available to individuals in case of violations of their data protection rights.
  4. International Commitments: The Commission takes into account the country’s commitment to international obligations and cooperation in the field of data protection, such as adherence to conventions and participation in international data protection frameworks.

Process and implications of an adequacy decision

The process of reaching an adequacy decision involves a detailed examination of the third country’s data protection framework, which includes consultations with relevant authorities and stakeholders. If the European Commission determines that the third country ensures an adequate level of data protection, it can adopt an adequacy decision, which has several implications:

  1. Unrestricted Data Transfers: With an adequacy decision in place, personal data can be transferred from the EU/EEA to the third country without the need for additional safeguards or legal mechanisms.
  2. Business Facilitation: Adequacy decisions facilitate international business operations by removing obstacles and providing legal certainty for organisations transferring personal data.
  3. Enhanced Trust: Adequacy decisions reinforce trust and confidence in data protection practices between the EU/EEA and the third country, promoting cooperation and data flows for various purposes, such as trade, research, and provision of services.
  4. Periodic Review: Adequacy decisions are not permanent. The European Commission regularly reviews the adequacy granted to a third country to ensure ongoing compliance with EU data protection standards. If a country’s level of data protection deteriorates, the adequacy decision may be suspended, repealed, or amended.

It is important to note that while an adequacy decision streamlines data transfers, organisations must still ensure compliance with other GDPR requirements, such as transparency, purpose limitation, and data minimization when transferring personal data to a third country, even with an adequacy decision in place.

Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs)

Purpose and use of SCCs

Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs), also known as model clauses or model contracts, are standardised contractual frameworks established by the European Commission. The purpose of SCCs is to provide a legal mechanism for international data transfers from the EU/EEA to countries that have not received an adequacy decision. SCCs serve as a means to ensure that the transferred personal data remains protected in accordance with GDPR requirements.

Key provisions and obligations within SCCs

SCCs contain specific provisions and obligations that both the data exporter (the organisation transferring the personal data) and the data importer (the organisation receiving the personal data) must adhere to. Some key provisions and obligations within SCCs include:

  1. Data Protection Principles: SCCs require the data importer to process the personal data in compliance with the GDPR’s fundamental principles, such as purpose limitation, data minimization, accuracy, and security.
  2. Rights of Data Subjects: SCCs specify that data subjects must be able to exercise their rights under the GDPR, such as the right to access, rectify, and erase their personal data, even when transferred to a third country.
  3. Security and Confidentiality: SCCs mandate the implementation of appropriate technical and organisational measures to protect the personal data against unauthorised access, disclosure, alteration, or destruction.
  4. Data Breach Notification: SCCs require the data importer to promptly notify the data exporter in the event of a data breach affecting the transferred personal data.
  5. Subprocessing and Onward Transfers: SCCs regulate the engagement of subprocessors by the data importer and the conditions for onward transfers of the personal data to additional recipients.
  6. Cooperation with Supervisory Authorities: SCCs outline the obligations of the data exporter and the data importer to cooperate with supervisory authorities and enable audits or inspections relating to the transferred data.

Implementing SCCs for international data transfers To implement SCCs for international data transfers, the data exporter and data importer must enter into a specific contract incorporating the SCCs as an integral part. The contract must be signed by both parties and can be customised to reflect the specific details of the data transfer arrangement. The SCCs may be incorporated into a separate agreement or included as an annex to an existing contract between the data exporter and data importer.

Challenges and limitations of SCCs

SCCs, while widely used and accepted as a transfer mechanism, have faced challenges and limitations, including:

  1. Varying Legal Requirements: SCCs may not fully address the divergent legal requirements of different jurisdictions. Some countries may impose additional or conflicting obligations on data importers, making compliance complex and potentially challenging.
  2. Inadequate Protection in Third Countries: SCCs may not provide sufficient safeguards in certain third countries where the level of data protection is not on par with the GDPR. Despite the use of SCCs, the transferred personal data may still be subject to access by public authorities or surveillance practices that do not meet the GDPR’s standards.
  3. Difficulty in Contractual Negotiations: Implementing SCCs involves negotiating and agreeing on the contractual terms and provisions between the data exporter and data importer. This process can be time-consuming, particularly when dealing with multiple parties or complex data transfer arrangements.
  4. Limited Flexibility and Adaptability: SCCs are standardised contractual clauses, which may not cater to the specific needs or nuances of certain data processing activities or sectors. This lack of flexibility can pose challenges when trying to tailor the clauses to unique situations or data flows.
  5. Supervisory Authority Scrutiny: SCCs are subject to scrutiny and interpretation by supervisory authorities within the EU. The differing interpretations and expectations of supervisory authorities across EU member states can create uncertainties and inconsistencies in their application, leading to potential compliance challenges.
  6. Legal Uncertainty and Future Developments: The legal landscape around international data transfers is continually evolving. Recent court rulings, such as the Schrems II case, have raised questions about the validity and adequacy of SCCs as a transfer mechanism. Organisations face uncertainty regarding the future of SCCs and the potential need for additional safeguards.
  7. Practical Implementation Challenges: Implementing and ensuring compliance with SCCs require ongoing monitoring, documentation, and coordination between the data exporter and data importer. This can be resource-intensive, particularly for organisations with numerous international data transfer arrangements or complex data processing operations.
  8. Alternative Mechanisms: With the invalidation of the Privacy Shield framework, organisations have had to explore alternative transfer mechanisms, such as Binding Corporate Rules (BCRs) or specific derogations under Article 49 of the GDPR. This presents additional complexities and decision-making challenges for organisations.

Despite these challenges, SCCs remain a commonly used mechanism for international data transfers. However, organisations should stay updated on regulatory developments and consult with legal professionals to ensure compliance with evolving requirements and explore additional safeguards as necessary.

Privacy Shield Framework

Background and purpose of the Privacy Shield

The Privacy Shield Framework was a data transfer mechanism between the European Union (EU) and the United States. It was designed to provide a legal framework for transatlantic data flows and ensure the protection of personal data transferred from the EU to Privacy Shield-certified companies in the United States. The Privacy Shield was created as a successor to the Safe Harbor framework, which was invalidated by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in 2015.

Principles and requirements under the Privacy Shield

The Privacy Shield was based on a set of principles and requirements that certified companies had to adhere to:

  1. Notice: Companies were required to provide individuals with clear and transparent information about the processing of their personal data, including purposes, third-party disclosures, and rights.
  2. Choice: Individuals had the right to opt-out of certain data uses and disclosures.
  3. Accountability for Onward Transfers: Companies were responsible for ensuring that any onward transfer of personal data to third parties complied with the Privacy Shield’s principles.
  4. Security: Organisations were required to implement appropriate security measures to protect personal data against loss, misuse, and unauthorised access.
  5. Data Integrity and Purpose Limitation: Data collection and processing were limited to the purposes specified in the Privacy Shield’s principles, and organisations had to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the data.
  6. Access, Rectification, and Redress: Individuals had the right to access their personal data, request its correction, and seek recourse in case of privacy violations.
  7. Enforcement and Oversight: The Privacy Shield was subject to oversight by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and other designated authorities to ensure compliance.

Certification process for companies

To participate in the Privacy Shield Framework, companies had to self-certify their compliance with the Privacy Shield principles. The certification process involved:

  1. Privacy Shield Statement: Companies had to develop a privacy policy statement that outlined their adherence to the Privacy Shield principles.
  2. Independent Recourse Mechanism: Organisations were required to provide individuals with an independent recourse mechanism to address privacy-related complaints and disputes.
  3. Verification: Companies had to verify their compliance with the Privacy Shield principles through internal assessments or external audits.

Evaluation and challenges to the Privacy Shield The Privacy Shield faced challenges and subsequent evaluation

  1. Court Ruling and Invalidation: In July 2020, the CJEU invalidated the Privacy Shield in the “Schrems II” case. The court held that the Privacy Shield did not adequately protect the privacy rights of EU individuals due to concerns about U.S. surveillance practices.
  2. Data Transfer Implications: The invalidation of the Privacy Shield created uncertainties for companies transferring personal data between the EU and the U.S. It raised concerns about the legality of such transfers under the GDPR.
  3. Alternative Mechanisms: Following the invalidation, organisations had to rely on alternative transfer mechanisms, such as Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs) or Binding Corporate Rules (BCRs), to ensure compliance with EU data protection requirements.
  4. Negotiations for a New Framework: The EU and U.S. authorities have been engaged in discussions to establish a new data transfer framework that addresses the concerns raised by the CJEU’s ruling and provides an adequate level of protection for personal data transfers.

It’s important for organisations to monitor and adapt their data transfer practices to align with the evolving legal landscape and ensure compliance with applicable data protection regulations.

Recent Developments and Repercussions

Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruling on the Privacy Shield

The CJEU ruling on the Privacy Shield, in the case commonly known as “Schrems II,” had significant implications for international data transfers. The court declared the Privacy Shield invalid on July 16, 2020, stating that it did not provide adequate protection for personal data transferred from the EU to the United States.

Implications of the ruling for international data transfers

The CJEU’s ruling in the Schrems II case had several implications for international data transfers:

  1. Invalidated Privacy Shield: The ruling effectively invalidated the Privacy Shield as a legal mechanism for transferring personal data from the EU to the United States. Organisations had to find alternative mechanisms to ensure compliance with EU data protection laws.
  2. Heightened Data Protection Standards: The ruling emphasised the importance of ensuring an equivalent level of data protection in the destination country, particularly regarding government surveillance practices and access to personal data.
  3. Increased Accountability: The ruling highlighted the responsibility of both data exporters and importers to assess the level of protection and implement necessary safeguards to protect personal data during international transfers.

Post-Privacy Shield alternatives and mechanisms for data transfers

Following the invalidation of the Privacy Shield, organisations turned to alternative mechanisms for international data transfers:

  1. Revised Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs): The European Commission introduced new SCCs on June 4, 2021, to provide updated contractual terms for data transfers. The revised SCCs aim to address some of the concerns raised in the Schrems II ruling and align with the GDPR’s requirements. These new SCCs include additional safeguards, such as addressing government access requests and requiring parties to conduct case-by-case assessments of the data transfer’s legal regime.
  2. Binding Corporate Rules (BCRs): BCRs are internal codes of conduct that multinational organisations can establish to facilitate data transfers within their group of companies. BCRs require approval from EU supervisory authorities and demonstrate a commitment to upholding strong data protection standards across the organisation. BCRs are often suitable for organisations with complex internal data transfers.
  3. Derogations under Article 49 of the GDPR: Article 49 of the GDPR provides derogations that allow data transfers without the need for specific safeguards or mechanisms. However, these derogations are limited in scope and intended for exceptional circumstances. Examples include explicit consent from data subjects, necessity for the performance of a contract, or protection of vital interests.

Organisations should carefully assess and choose the most appropriate mechanism for their international data transfers, considering the specific circumstances, risks, and legal requirements. It is crucial to ensure that any chosen mechanism provides an adequate level of protection for personal data in accordance with the GDPR. Regular monitoring of regulatory developments and guidance is essential to stay informed of any further changes or updates regarding international data transfers.

Practical Considerations for Organisations

Steps to ensure compliance with GDPR requirements for international data transfers

To ensure compliance with GDPR requirements for international data transfers, organisations should take the following steps:

  1. Data Mapping: Identify and document all international data transfers within the organisation, including the types of data transferred, the purpose of the transfer, and the recipients.
  2. Legal Basis: Determine a valid legal basis for each transfer, such as adequacy decisions, Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs), Binding Corporate Rules (BCRs), or specific derogations under Article 49 of the GDPR.
  3. Implement Appropriate Safeguards: If relying on mechanisms like SCCs or BCRs, ensure their proper implementation and adherence to the GDPR’s requirements.
  4. Review Contracts: Review and update contracts with third parties involved in data transfers to include necessary data protection clauses and obligations.
  5. Conduct Privacy Impact Assessments (PIAs): Perform PIAs for high-risk transfers to assess potential privacy risks and implement mitigation measures.
  6. Provide Transparency: Update privacy policies and inform individuals about international data transfers, including the mechanisms used and any potential risks involved.

Assessing and mitigating risks associated with transfers

Organisations should assess and mitigate risks associated with international data transfers by:

  1. Understanding Legal and Regulatory Requirements: Stay informed about the data protection laws and regulations in the destination country to assess potential risks to personal data.
  2. Data Minimization: Transfer only necessary and relevant personal data, minimising the amount of data being transferred.
  3. Implementing Security Measures: Implement appropriate technical and organisational security measures to protect the data during transit and at the destination.
  4. Vendor Due Diligence: Conduct due diligence on third-party vendors or service providers involved in data transfers to ensure they have adequate data protection measures in place.
  5. Risk Assessment: Regularly assess and identify any new or emerging risks associated with international data transfers and implement appropriate mitigation measures.

Working with third-party vendors and service providers

When working with third-party vendors or service providers involved in international data transfers, organisations should:

  1. Conduct Vendor Assessments: Assess the data protection practices and capabilities of vendors before engaging in data transfers.
  2. Contractual Obligations: Include specific data protection clauses in contracts with vendors, ensuring they adhere to GDPR requirements.
  3. Data Processing Agreements: Establish data processing agreements that clearly outline the responsibilities of vendors regarding data protection and international transfers.
  4. Audit and Monitoring: Regularly monitor and audit vendors to ensure compliance with contractual obligations and data protection requirements.

Importance of ongoing monitoring and review of data transfer practices

Ongoing monitoring and review of data transfer practices are crucial to maintaining compliance with GDPR requirements:

  1. Stay Updated on Regulatory Changes: Stay informed about any changes in data protection laws and regulations that may impact international data transfers.
  2. Periodic Data Mapping: Conduct periodic data mapping exercises to identify any new or changed international data transfers within the organisation.
  3. Documentation and Record-Keeping: Maintain documentation and records of all international data transfers, including the legal basis, safeguards, and risk assessments.
  4. Incident Response: Establish incident response procedures to promptly address and mitigate any breaches or incidents involving international data transfers.
  5. Training and Awareness: Provide regular training and awareness programs to employees on data protection, privacy, and the organisation’s international data transfer practices.

By following these practical considerations, organisations can enhance their compliance efforts and ensure the protection of personal data when engaging in international data transfers. Regular review and adaptation of data transfer practices are essential to address any evolving risks or regulatory requirements.


In conclusion, ensuring compliance with GDPR requirements for international data transfers is essential for organisations to protect the privacy and security of personal data. By following practical considerations such as mapping data flows, assessing risks, working with vendors, and maintaining ongoing monitoring, organisations can navigate the complex landscape of international data transfers while mitigating potential risks. Staying informed about regulatory developments and choosing appropriate mechanisms, such as SCCs or BCRs, allows organisations to adapt to evolving legal requirements. With a proactive approach and a commitment to data protection, organisations can navigate international data transfers while upholding the rights and privacy of individuals.