GDPR and Consent Management: Strategies for Obtaining and Managing Consent

Consent is a fundamental principle of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that empowers individuals to have control over their personal data. For organisations, effectively obtaining and managing consent is crucial for ensuring compliance and respecting individuals’ privacy rights.

This article focuses on GDPR and consent management, exploring strategies and best practices for obtaining and managing consent in a privacy-centric manner. It highlights the importance of informed and freely given consent, the challenges organisations face in obtaining valid consent, and the role of technology in facilitating consent management processes.

By collaborating with data protection consultants and implementing robust consent management strategies, organisations can enhance transparency, build trust with users, and demonstrate their commitment to protecting personal data in accordance with GDPR requirements.


The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has transformed data protection practices, putting individuals’ privacy rights at the forefront. Consent has become a pivotal element in the GDPR framework, granting individuals control over their personal data and dictating the lawfulness of data processing.

Under the GDPR, organisations are required to obtain explicit and informed consent from individuals before processing their personal data. This consent must be freely given, specific, informed, and unambiguous, ensuring that individuals have a clear understanding of how their data will be used. Consent management becomes a critical aspect of GDPR compliance, as organisations need to establish robust processes for obtaining, documenting, and managing consent to demonstrate accountability and transparency. By prioritising consent management, organisations can not only comply with legal obligations but also build trust with individuals by respecting their privacy and empowering them to make informed choices about their personal data.

Understanding GDPR Consent Requirements

Definition of consent under GDPR

In the context of the GDPR, consent is defined as the voluntary, explicit, and unambiguous expression of an individual’s wishes regarding the processing of their personal data. It requires a clear affirmative action, such as ticking a box or providing a written statement, indicating the individual’s agreement to the processing of their data.

Key principles for obtaining valid consent

To obtain valid consent under the GDPR, organisations must adhere to key principles:

  1. Freely given: Consent must be given without coercion or undue influence. Individuals should not face negative consequences or be denied services if they refuse to provide consent.
  2. Specific: Consent must be specific and tied to a particular purpose of the data processing. Organisations should clearly explain the intended uses of the data to individuals.
  3. Informed: Individuals must have a clear understanding of the implications of their consent. Organisations should provide transparent information about the processing activities, including the data collected, the purposes, any third-party recipients, and the rights of individuals.
  4. Unambiguous: Consent must be given through a clear affirmative action, leaving no room for doubt or misunderstanding. Silence, pre-ticked boxes, or inactivity cannot be considered as valid consent.

Conditions for consent to be freely given, specific, informed, and unambiguous

To ensure that consent meets the GDPR requirements, organisations should consider the following conditions:

  1. Clear and prominent communication: Consent requests should be presented in a clear and easily understandable manner. Information about the purposes of processing, the right to withdraw consent, and any consequences of withholding or withdrawing consent should be provided.
  2. Granularity and options: Organisations should offer individuals granular choices and separate consents for different processing purposes whenever feasible. Individuals should have the ability to choose which specific processing activities they consent to and which they do not.
  3. Documenting consent: Organisations should keep records of obtained consents, including details of when and how consent was given, the information provided to individuals, and any subsequent changes or withdrawals of consent.

Age of consent and special considerations for children

The GDPR recognises that children require special protection regarding their personal data. For children under the age of 16 (unless Member States lower the age to a minimum of 13), parental consent is required for processing their data in the context of information society services. Organisations must make reasonable efforts to verify the age of individuals and obtain appropriate consent based on the age of the data subject.

Lawful bases for processing personal data other than consent

While consent is an important lawful basis for processing personal data, the GDPR also allows for other legal grounds for processing, including the necessity of processing for the performance of a contract, compliance with legal obligations, protection of vital interests, tasks carried out in the public interest or official authority, and legitimate interests pursued by the data controller or a third party. It is essential for organisations to assess and identify the appropriate lawful basis for each processing activity, ensuring that it aligns with the GDPR requirements.

By understanding these GDPR consent requirements, organisations can effectively obtain and manage consent, ensuring compliance with the regulations and respecting individuals’ rights regarding the processing of their personal data.

Strategies for Obtaining Consent

Clear and transparent communication

  1. Providing concise and easily understandable information: Organisations should present privacy notices and consent requests in a clear and concise manner, avoiding complex legal jargon. Information should be easily accessible, prominently displayed, and written in plain language to ensure individuals understand what they are consenting to.
  2. Explaining the purpose and scope of data processing: Consent requests should clearly outline the specific purposes for which personal data will be processed. Organisations should provide detailed information about how the data will be used, any third parties involved, and the retention period, enabling individuals to make an informed decision.
  3. Ensuring explicit opt-in mechanisms: Consent should be obtained through an affirmative action, such as ticking an unticked box or providing a written statement. Pre-ticked boxes or implied consent should be avoided to ensure individuals actively and explicitly express their consent.

Granularity and specific consent

  1. Requesting separate consents for different processing activities: When multiple processing activities are involved, organisations should offer separate consents for each specific purpose. This allows individuals to make granular choices and gives them more control over their data.
  2. Allowing users to choose specific purposes of data processing: Organisations should provide individuals with the option to select specific purposes for which they grant consent. This ensures that individuals have a clear understanding of and control over the specific processing activities they are agreeing to.
  3. Ensuring users have the ability to withdraw consent easily: Individuals should be provided with user-friendly and accessible mechanisms to withdraw their consent at any time. This could include providing clear instructions and an easily accessible opt-out or unsubscribe option.

Enhanced user control and preferences

  1. Offering granular options for consent settings: Organisations should provide individuals with granular choices when it comes to consent settings. This allows individuals to customise their preferences and select the specific types of processing activities they are comfortable with.
  2. Implementing user-friendly consent interfaces and mechanisms: Consent interfaces should be designed with user experience in mind, ensuring they are intuitive, easy to navigate, and accessible across different devices. This helps individuals navigate the consent process smoothly and fosters a positive user experience.
  3. Providing user-friendly options to update and manage consent preferences: Organisations should give individuals the ability to easily update and manage their consent preferences. This includes providing options for individuals to modify their consent choices, withdraw consent, or update their communication preferences as needed.

Consent management for different channels and contexts

  1. Tailoring consent mechanisms for online and offline channels: Organisations should adapt their consent mechanisms to different channels, whether it’s through online platforms, physical forms, telephone calls, or in-person interactions. This ensures that consent is obtained and recorded consistently across all channels.
  2. Addressing consent requirements in mobile applications and IoT devices: Organisations should consider specific consent requirements for mobile applications and Internet of Things (IoT) devices. This may include implementing contextual pop-ups, providing clear consent prompts within the application interface, or utilising device-specific functionalities to obtain explicit consent.
  3. Adapting consent management to different business sectors and contexts: Consent management strategies should be tailored to the specific needs and requirements of different business sectors and contexts. This includes considering industry-specific regulations, data processing practices, and user expectations to ensure compliance and effective consent management.

By implementing these strategies, organisations can enhance their consent acquisition processes, foster transparency, and respect individuals’ choices and privacy rights when it comes to the processing of their personal data.

Consent Management Strategies and Best Practices

Documentation and record-keeping

  1. Maintaining a comprehensive record of consent: Organisations should establish robust systems for documenting and retaining records of obtained consent. This includes capturing the date, time, and method of consent, as well as the specific information provided to individuals during the consent process.
  2. Documenting the details of consent obtained: It is crucial to document the specific purposes and scope of consent, including any limitations or conditions associated with the consent. This ensures transparency and accountability, demonstrating compliance with GDPR requirements.
  3. Establishing procedures for responding to data subject requests: Organisations should develop procedures for handling data subject requests related to consent, such as requests to access, modify, or withdraw consent. These procedures should enable timely and efficient responses, ensuring individuals can exercise their rights effectively.

Consent lifecycle management

  1. Periodic review and renewal of consent: Organisations should establish processes to periodically review and assess the validity of existing consents. This helps ensure that consent remains up-to-date and relevant, considering any changes in data processing activities or the purposes for which the data is used.
  2. Establishing mechanisms to refresh consent: To maintain ongoing compliance, organisations can implement mechanisms to proactively seek renewed consent from individuals at appropriate intervals. This helps to validate and refresh consent in line with evolving data processing practices.
  3. Automating consent expiration and renewal processes: Leveraging technology, organisations can automate the expiration and renewal of consents based on predefined timeframes or triggers. This streamlines the management of consents, reduces manual effort, and ensures compliance with consent durations specified in the GDPR.

Ensuring consent across third-party data processors

  1. Assessing data processor compliance with GDPR: Organisations should evaluate the compliance practices of third-party data processors to ensure they adhere to GDPR requirements, particularly concerning consent management. This involves conducting due diligence and implementing mechanisms to monitor and verify compliance.
  2. Establishing contractual agreements for data processing: Organisations should establish contractual agreements with third-party data processors that clearly outline the responsibilities and obligations related to consent management. These agreements should include provisions for obtaining and managing consent on behalf of the organisation.
  3. Monitoring and auditing third-party consent management practices: Regular monitoring and auditing of third-party consent management practices are crucial to ensure ongoing compliance. This includes conducting periodic assessments, reviewing documentation, and performing audits to verify that consent is obtained and managed appropriately.

Data protection by design and default

  1. Implementing privacy-enhancing technologies: Organisations should incorporate privacy-enhancing technologies into their consent management processes. This includes encryption, pseudonymization, and anonymization techniques to protect personal data and minimize the potential privacy risks associated with consent management.
  2. Incorporating privacy considerations in product and service development: Privacy should be embedded into the design and development of products and services. This involves considering consent requirements, providing user-friendly interfaces for managing consent, and ensuring that privacy controls are readily accessible.
  3. Conducting privacy impact assessments: Organisations should conduct privacy impact assessments (PIAs) to evaluate the potential risks and impacts on individuals’ privacy rights associated with their data processing activities. PIAs help identify and address privacy concerns, including those related to consent management, early in the development process.

By implementing these consent management strategies and best practices, organisations can establish effective and compliant processes for obtaining, managing, and renewing consent. This enables them to build trust with individuals, demonstrate accountability, and ensure the lawful processing of personal data in accordance with the GDPR.

Challenges and Solutions in Consent Management

Consent fatigue and user engagement

  1. Mitigating consent fatigue through streamlined processes: Consent fatigue can occur when individuals are overwhelmed with frequent consent requests. To address this, organisations should streamline their consent processes by implementing technologies such as preference centres or centralised consent management platforms. This allows individuals to manage their consents in a single place, reducing the number of repetitive consent requests.
  2. Enhancing user engagement and awareness through education: Organisations can combat consent fatigue by educating individuals about the importance of consent and data privacy. Providing clear and concise information about the value of their personal data and how it is protected can increase user engagement and understanding. This can be achieved through privacy notices, educational campaigns, and user-friendly resources that empower individuals to make informed decisions.
  3. Providing clear and user-friendly options to manage consents: Organisations should offer user-friendly interfaces that enable individuals to easily understand and manage their consents. This includes providing clear options to review, modify, or withdraw consents, along with straightforward mechanisms for individuals to exercise their rights. User-centric design and intuitive consent management interfaces can enhance user engagement and facilitate active participation in the consent process.

Cross-border data transfers and compliance

  1. Understanding data transfer mechanisms under GDPR: Organisations must comprehend the legal mechanisms for transferring personal data outside the European Economic Area (EEA) to ensure compliance with GDPR. This includes familiarising themselves with mechanisms such as adequacy decisions, standard contractual clauses, binding corporate rules, and certifications.
  2. Implementing appropriate safeguards for international data transfers: When transferring personal data to countries that are not deemed to provide an adequate level of protection, organisations should implement appropriate safeguards to protect the data. This can involve utilising approved data transfer mechanisms, such as implementing specific contractual clauses or utilising encryption and pseudonymization techniques.
  3. Navigating regulatory differences in different jurisdictions: Consent management becomes complex when operating in multiple jurisdictions with different data protection laws. Organisations need to navigate and comply with the requirements of each jurisdiction, which may involve adjusting consent management strategies, data processing practices, and contractual agreements. Seeking legal guidance and staying up to date with evolving regulations can help organisations address cross-border compliance challenges.

Data breaches and accountability

Data breaches pose significant risks to the security and privacy of personal data, impacting the effectiveness of consent management. Organisations can address these challenges by:

  1. Implementing robust security measures: Organisations should establish comprehensive security measures, such as encryption, access controls, and intrusion detection systems, to protect personal data from unauthorised access or breaches. Regular security assessments and audits can identify vulnerabilities and ensure continuous improvement in data protection practices.
  2. Having an incident response plan: Organisations should develop and maintain a well-defined incident response plan to promptly and effectively respond to data breaches. This includes processes for identifying and containing breaches, notifying individuals and relevant authorities, and taking appropriate remedial actions to minimise harm and ensure compliance with legal obligations.
  3. Demonstrating accountability and transparency: Organisations should maintain a culture of accountability by documenting and regularly reviewing their consent management practices. This includes keeping records of consent, conducting internal audits, and providing clear documentation of compliance efforts. Demonstrating accountability and transparency not only helps in managing data breaches but also enhances trust and credibility with individuals and regulatory authorities.

By addressing these challenges and implementing the corresponding solutions, organisations can navigate the complexities of consent management under the GDPR. This ensures the protection of personal data, fosters user trust, and promotes responsible and compliant data processing practices.


In conclusion, effective consent management is crucial for GDPR compliance. It empowers individuals to control their personal data and ensures transparent data processing. This article has provided strategies for obtaining and managing consent, including clear communication, granularity, user control, and tailored consent management. Documentation, lifecycle management, third-party compliance, and data protection enhance the framework.

Challenges like consent fatigue, cross-border data transfers, and data breaches require proactive solutions. Mitigating fatigue, understanding data transfers, and prioritising security are essential. By implementing the outlined strategies, organisations can navigate GDPR requirements, protect data, and promote ethical practices. Consent management not only ensures compliance but also respects individuals’ rights and privacy in the digital age.